A clean bioprocess has been developed by NIIST for the extraction of quality coir fibre from coconut husk. This method carries out separation of fibres from their matrices by enzymatic cleaving of cementing compounds with in situ microbial growth and enzyme production. This bioprocess not only converts all the organic pollutants emanated from the extraction process to methane, but also facilitates its recovery as an Energy Source. Since the methane production is almost exclusively from the Up flow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket Method (UASB) methanogenic reactor and no significant quantity of methane is generated from the retting tanks, therefore the collection of methane is possible without expensive gas tight covering of the retting tanks.
This bioprocess can also be used for processing of natural fibres like jute, banana and pineapple leaf.
Investment required : Capacity : 16000 husk/day; Investment : Rs.1.4 crore; Production per day :1.4 t fibre @ Rs.20,000/t; 0.8 t pith @ Rs.250/t; 800m3 biogas @ Rs.5/m3
Validation level : Real life.; IPR Status : Filed.
Returns / Benefit :
The Byadgi Chilli, which is known for its high colour is currently processed in the traditional manner which result in loss of carotenoids during the sun drying operation. The new process developed employs a fluid bed drier for bringing down the moisture to acceptable levels of fresh chilli hygienically. The resulting end product will have a 10% increase in colour value when compared to the conventionally processed raw material. The raw material is washed, size reduced, dried in the fluid bed drier and then de- seeded. The contact time in the drier is less than 15 minutes and the entire operation is automated. All the machineries are interlocked and the manpower requirements are marginal. High pressure steam is used as the heating medium and the plant is engineered to ensure high thermal efficiency.
Investment required: The facility can be set up at a cost of approximately Rs.2.5 crore for a 20 Ton/day fresh red byadagi chilli processing unit.
Returns / Benefit: The unit can provide direct employment to 30 people and indirectly benefit a large number of farmers ensuring fair price for the produce.
Validation level: Pilot scale.
Oil palm is a new crop to our country and is the highest oil yielding crop, gives about 20 tonnes of oil per hectare. Unlike other oils, palm oil is taken from the fresh fruit and hence the extraction process involves many unit operations. Moreover, the fruits have to be processed within 24 hours from harvest and during harvest the damage to the fruit has to be minimal otherwise the oil quality will be bad. This necessitates captive process unit for oil palm plantation. Considering these requirements and the land holding pattern, NIIST has designed a plant for extraction of Palm Oil from Oil Palm Fresh Fruit Bunches (FFB) 2.5 ton expandable to 5.0 ton and 5.0 ton expandable to 10.0 ton FFB/hr processing plant. The technology has been commercialized. The process efficiency and product quality are comparable with international standards.
Investment required: The total investment towards 2.5 ton FFB/hr palm oil mill is Rs.450 lakh (excluding land cost) which can be expanded to 5.0 ton plant with an additional investment of Rs.150 lakh.
For a 5.0 ton plant the total investment is Rs. 700 lakh which can be expanded to 10 ton plant with an additional investment of Rs.200 lakh. 2.5 ton mill can cater to the need of 500 hectares.
Returns / Benefit: Since the plant runs at lower capacities initially for want of raw material it takes few years to stabilize to run at designated capacities. Once it is stabilized the rate of return is around 25% and the pay back period is 5 years. The projected cumulative net profit during 10 years of operation is about Rs.350 lakh. The break even capacity is 48% and cash break even point is 24%.
Validation level: Real life.
Manufacture of coir-polymer composite material, named as ‘Polycoir’. It is used as wood substitute in construction and consumer industries for ready to use parts like door shutters, panelling, chair shells, instrument panel covers, automotive interior, trim parts etc.
The process involves polymer impregnation followed by compression moulding. Process efficiency is over 90% and the product quality is superior to standard plywood.
The NIIST Bioprocess uses a specific microbial system capable of degrading perchlorate in short time (hours). This process can be applied for treating both contaminated water and soil. The mixed bacterial system used in the process is dominated by bacteria such as Dechloromonas, Halomonas, Serratia, etc. Under defined conditions, the bacteria reduce perchlorate completely into chloride and oxygen. Being an anoxic process, it requires less energy input and require no secondary treatment.
The bioprocess was demonstrated successfully in a pilot scale unit (150 lit capacity) capable of treating 720 lit contaminated water in a day, where the retention time is only ~4.5 hrs. Similarly, demonstration of contaminated soil treatment was done at 750 kg level. The removal was almost 100% in both the cases….
It is an anaerobic process mediated through microbial action and completed in 4-6 days of water soaking. The in-situ production of enzymes is responsible for the separation of the fibres, which is in turn facilitated in the system by circulating liquid from an anaerobic reactor treating fibreless wastes and juice of the pseudostem. In this treatment, the organic wastes are converted to biogas and pollution free…….
A blue pigment at could be the coolest blue in the world. Its average IR reflectance is 80 percent. If it is coated it on the roof and outer walls, it can bring down the room temperature by 5 degrees Celsius. The project is relevant now after Kerala experienced one of its hottest summers. Globally, scientists have been working on various climate change products.
Now, the ‘cool paint’ market is huge, and cool roof market is worth $430-470 million. By 2020, it is expected to grow by $750 million. In 2012, the objective of the project was to simply develop a non-toxic pigment from Rare Earths as part of a CSIR-Programme…..
Metal oxide semiconductor nanoparticles satisfying the requirements of controlled particle size, high specific surface area, good crystallinity, appropriate phase compositions are known to exhibit photo activity by which it can function as catalysts, decomposer of organic compounds and contaminants from atmosphere and anti microbial agents. The process developed in CSIR- NIIST is based on an aqueous precipitation process from an inorganic precursor and is considered significantly cheaper compared to the alkoxide based processes. Transparent coatings at laboratory level are prepared over commercially available glass, glazed ceramic tiles and terracotta products by dip coating and spray coating techniques followed by annealing at specific conditions. Compositions which provide enhanced photoactivity under exposure to sunlight in addition to the usual UV light and modification of surfaces for hydrophobic character are developed……
A compact anaerobic digester capable of stabilizing household biomass wastes at the site without causing environmental pollution. It is a suitable facility for managing biomass wastes at the source of origin and biogas recovery. Besides producing methane-rich biogas, the system converts biomass wastes to compost slurry having higher content of stable solids. The stabilized compost slurry from this biogas plant is an excellent material ready to use as soil manure for agriculture applications. A digester of 350-litre volume is sufficient to treat around 3 kilograms wastes a day. It produces 250 to 600 litres of methane rich biogas daily by loading of 1 to 3 kg wastes as input. The biogas produced can be conveniently stored in biogas balloons, waste tubes or in the digester itself.
Ilmenite (FeTiO3) and rutile (TiO2) are the natural minerals exploited worldwide for the production of pigment grade TiO2 and titanium metal. CSIR-NIIST has developed an environment-friendly process which is superior in terms of pollution abatement, technology and the grade of synthetic rutile.
This technology has been successfully demonstrated at two private industries where around 700 metric tons of ilmenite has been processed to obtain 570 metric tons of metallized ilmenite (83-85%) with two commercial Direct Reduced Iron (DRI) rotary kilns of capacity 50 TPD and 130, metric tons of synthetic rutile has been produced. The process conditions of individual operations have been tailor-made to suit the available various grade of Indian ilmenite.