A Ratiometric Near-Infrared Fluorogen for the Real Time Visualization of Intracellular Redox Status during Apoptosis
Giridharan Saranya, Palapuravan Anees, Manu M. Joseph, Kaustabh K. Maiti* and
Direct monitoring of apoptotic progression is a major step forward for the early assessment of therapeutic efficacy of certain treatments and the accurate evaluation of the spread of a disease. Here, the regulatory role of glutathione (GSH) is explored as a potential biomarker for tracking apoptosis. For this purpose, a nearinfrared (NIR) squaraine dye is introduced that is capable of sensing GSH in a ratiometric manner by switching its emission from NIR (690 nm) to visible region (560 nm). The favorable biocompatible attributes of the probe facilitated the real-time monitoring of apoptotic process in line with the conventional apoptotic assay. Furthermore, the robust nature of the probe was utilized for the quantitative estimation of GSH during different stages of apoptosis. Through this study, an easy and reliable method of assaying apoptosis is demonstrated, which can provide valuable insights in translational clinical research.
Chem. Eur. J. 2017, 23, 7191 – 7195.