Shukla Satyajit Vishnu, Padinhattayil Hareesh, Narayani Harsha, Jose Manu, Karunakaran Remya
Semiconductor-oxide nanotubes-based composite particles are useful for dye-removal. A method involves an ion-exchange mechanism operating under a dark-condition in an aqueous solution, for the processing of products consisting of the nanotubes of semiconductor-oxides deposited on, anchored to or attached to the surface of fly ash particles and metal-oxide (magnetic and non-magnetic) nanoparticles. The resulting micro-nano and nano-nano integrated composite particles can be used in the removal of an organic synthetic-dye from an aqueous solution and industry effluent via a surface-adsorption process, involving ion-exchange and electrostatic-attraction mechanisms. The composite particles can be recycled for the next cycle of dye-adsorption by decomposing the previously adsorbed dye on their surfaces via the use of either noble-metal-deposited or magnetically separable magnetic photocatalysts and exposure to ultraviolet (UV) or solar-radiation.