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Sustainable and eco-friendly strategies for shrimp shell valorization

Among the seafood used globally, shellfish consumption is in great demand. The utilization of these shellfish such as prawn/shrimp has opened a new market for the utilization of the shellfish wastes. Considering the trends on the production of wealth from wastes, shrimp shell wastes seem an important resource for the generation of high value products when processed on the principles of a biorefinery. In recent years, various chemical strategies have been tried to valorize the shrimp shell wastes, which required harsh chemicals such as HCl and NaOH for demineralization (DM) and deproteination (DP) of the shrimp wastes. Disposal of chemicals by the chitin and chitosan industries into the aquatic bodies pose harm to the aquatic flora and fauna. Thus, there has been intensive efforts to develop safe and sustainable technologies for the management of shrimp shell wastes. This review provides an insight about environmentally-friendly methods along with biological methods to valorize the shrimp waste compared to the strategies employing concentrated chemicals. The main objective of this review article is to explain the utilization shrimp shell wastes in a productive manner such that it would be offer environment and economic sustainability. The application of valorized by-products developed from the shrimp shell wastes and physical methods to improve the pretreatment process of shellfish wastes for valorization are also highlighted in this paper.