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Technical, economic and environmental feasibility of resource recovery technologies from wastewater

An enormous amount of wastewater is generated across the world from different industrial or municipal sectors. Traditional wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) have primarily focused on the treatment of wastewater rather than the recovery of valuable resources. A shift from a linear to a circular economy may offer a unique platform for recovering valuable resources including energy, nutrients, and high-value goods from wastewater. However, transitioning from conventional frameworks to sustainable WWT systems remains a significant challenge. Thus, this review paper focuses on the avenues of resource recovery from WWTPs, by evaluating the potential for nutrients, water, and energy recovery from different types of wastewaters and sewage sludge. It discusses in detail a variety of available and advanced technologies for resource recovery. Further, the feasibility of these technologies from a sustainable standpoint is discussed, covering the technical, economic, and environmental facets.