Drug Discovery is a very labor intensive, time-consuming and expensive process. In order to find the candidate targets researchers compare the protein expression levels in normal and diseased tissues. Targets such as enzymes, receptors, nucleic acids, ion channels and transporters form critical links in all “biochemical processes”. When one of these links is malfunctioning then a disease state may arise. Small molecules, low molecular weight organic compounds with an upper molecular weight limit approximately 800 Daltons, allow modulation of these biomolecules (targets) by inhibition or activation. In modern labs upto 100,000 small molecules can be tested a day using advanced technology such as High-throughput Screening to identify lead compounds. A lead compound is a first foothold on the drug discovery ladder. The presentation is focused on introducing the traditional and modern ways of generation of these small molecules by researchers. Strategies that will be presented are Structure Activity relationship studies (SARS); Total synthesis; Diversity-oriented total synthesis; Natural product modifications; Combinatorial libraries; Solid phase organic synthesis (SPOS); Precursor directed biosynthesis; Enzymatic syntheses; Privileged structures; and finally a case study on Mode of action (MOA) and mechanisms that confer antibacterial drug resistance.
Recently, there has been great interest in the development of efficient, low-cost and environmentally friendly photovoltaic devices. Plastic solar cells, based on conjugated polymers and molecules have attracted considerable attention in the past few years because they have the potential to be efficient, environmentally safe, inexpensive, flexible, lightweight, and solution processable. New materials, nanostructures, device designs, and processing methods have been developed to achieve high device efficiencies. In this talk, I will first introduce the fundamental knowledge of polymer solar cells and emphasize the importance of nanoscale morphology and nanostructures on the device performance. I will also discuss some examples from the very recent literature in developing the highly efficient polymer based solar cells. Finally, I shall discuss the future plan of my own research related to the plastic solar cells.
In the last few years, organic nanomaterials have attracted much attention due to their potential applications in various fields such as light-emitting devices, solar cells, or polymer-based transistors.1,2 Such interest is somewhat related to the fact that electronic and optical properties of organic nanomaterials are highly dependent on their size, shape, and composition. However, controlled organization of the molecules into nanomaterials of defined size and geometry is still challenging. Various preparative approaches have been proposed to tailor their morphological and physical properties, including colloidal, template, and supramolecular. Among these, the bottom-up approach involving the supra-molecular interactions allows hierarchical self-assembly of molecular components through the optimization of various noncovalent interactions and provides the unique ability to control matter at the molecular level. In this context we demonstrate the use of complementary hydrogen bonding and other noncovalent interactions for the tailor-making of functional nanomaterials.3-5
1. F. J. M. Hoeben, P. Jonkheijm, E.W. Meijer, A. P. H. J. Schenning, Chem. Rev. 2005, 105, 1491
2. R. Bhosale, J. Misek, N. Sakai, S. Matile, Chem. Soc. Rev., 2010, 39, 138
3. K. Yoosaf, A. Belbakra, N. Armaroli, A. Llanes-Pallas, T. Marangoni, R. Marega, E. Botek, B.
Champagne, D. Bonifazi, Chem. Eur. J., 2011, 17, 3262
4. A. Llanes-Pallas, K. Yoosaf, H. Traboulsi, J. Mohanraj, T. Seldrum, J. Dumont, A. Minoia, R.
Lazzaroni, N. Armaroli, D. Bonifazi, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2011, 133, 15412
5. L. Maggini, H. Traboulsi, K. Yoosaf, J. Mohanraj, J. Wouters, O. Pietraszkiewicz, M.
Pietraszkiewicz, N. Armaroli, D. Bonifazi, Chem. Commun. 2011, 1625