With the short coming of fossil fuels in future, current research focus has been in alternate fuels such as solar, wind, biofuels etc which are renewable. Biofuels can be alternative to transportation fuels either by blendingor as lead fuel without any engine modification. Firstgeneration biofuels which are made from sugar, starch, or vegetable oil are not acceptable as fuel as it primarily debates overfood v/s fuel, hence; focus has been shifted to second generation and third generation biofuels. Bioethanol from lignocellulose biomass is second generation biofuels.Ligno-cellulose biomasses are generally agro-residues such as sugarcane trash, rice straw, wheat straw, cotton stalk etc... Lignocellulose biomass mainly consists of lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose. The cellulosic matter is separated from lignin and hemicellulose to an extent by pre-treating the biomass and this cellulosic matter is converted to sugars(hydrolysis) and these sugars are converted to ethanol (fermentation).
Nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDK) is an essential enzyme present in a wide range of organisms, with the gene and its structure highly conserved. NDK utilises an autophosphorylated enzyme intermediate to catalyse the transfer of 5’ terminal phosphate from NTPs to nucleoside diphosphates (NDPs), which therefore get converted to the respective NTPs. in addition to its primary role to maintain the cellular NTP pool, it also involved in cellular regulatory functions such as growth and developmental control, tumor metastasis suppression and signal transduction. The recent advancement in structural and functional role of NDK will be discussed.
Abstract: Organometal halide perovskite-based solar cells have recently emerged as a transformative photovoltaic (PV) technology. It possesses the advantages of both organic (solution processability and less expensive) and inorganic (excellent power conversion efficiency and high stability) counterparts. Power conversion efficiency attained with the hybrid organic ? inorganic perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 has now exceeded 15%, making it competitive with thin-film PV technology. The most attractive aspects of this technology are the simplicity of photoactive layer synthesis and application using bench top approaches at temperatures less than 100 °C. An important and useful feature of these organometal halide perovskite solar cells is the relatively high open-circuit voltage (VOC ? 1 V). New strategies are now being explored to boost the open-circuit voltage even higher using CH3NH3PbBr3. For example, inclusion of chloride ions in CH3NH3PbBr3 films yields VOC as high as 1.5 V.