Cancer is a class of diseases characterized by uncontrolled growth of cells. The earlier it is diagnosed and treated, the better chance of its being cured. Cancer diagnosis begins with a thorough physical exam and laboratory tests to assess the staging that it is necessary for further planning of treatment. Cancer staging often determined by biopsy helps to determine the aggressiveness of cancer type and the extent of cancer spread. Tumour markers are very helpful in each stage of prognosis, diagnosis and treatment. Modern diagnostic procedures involve various techniques such as fluorescence cytoscopy, immunoscintigraphy, positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance spectroscopy imaging. Photodyanamic therapy, molecular targeted therapy and immunotherapy alone or in combination are used in modern treatment modalities. Research is also progressing towards finding of medicine for each person based on their genetic makeup and requirements.
Microfluidic technology is slowly emerging as a basic tool for chemical synthesis particularly in industrial settings. With enhanced heat and mass-transfer rates, continuous-flow operations, and the potential inline analysis inherent in microsystems for chemistry, chemical researchers are using micro reactors to investigate reactions which are not easily achieved with conventional laboratory batch equipment, such as glass flasks and test tubes. As a result, microreactor systems are attracting attention in pharmaceutical and fine-chemical industries as a platform technology to be used for discovery and reaction development in research laboratories and scales to satisfy production throughput requirements. In this presentation, a brief review of the activities reported worldwide on chemical synthesis using micro structured reactors is presented. After introducing micro structured reactors, the advantages and its disadvantages some case studies reported in the literature is presented for some specific organic reactions. Also some case studies related to commercial micro structured reactors is presented. This is followed by the presentation of ongoing basic work at CSIR-NIIST related to the hydrodynamics of such reactors.
Flexible large area electronics is a segment of electronics which is based on the monolithic integration of electronics on amorphous substrates which have large dimensions. This can be seen in contrast to conventional microelectronics involving monolithic integration of electronics on crystalline substrates which are much smaller to make integrated circuits (ICs) or individual devices. In large area electronics, there is an imminent revolution that is driven by innovative applications at a much lower cost than conventional methods of manufacturing. At the heart of this revolution are flexible and form fitting property of products and their manufacturing by printing based methods. The combination of the two will lead to manufacturing that is on a roll-to-roll basis. The electronics emerging from this would be on substrates that are plastics, paper, textiles or metal foils. The circuits will be printed roll-to-roll for fast manufacturing processes, much the same way as newspaper printing. The products will be much more affordable and even disposable, where needed. They find applications in several industry sectors including distributed energy production through organic solar cells on windows and roofs, disposable sensors for air and water quality management or lab-on-a-chip for health monitoring etc. The first half of the talk will give ideas about the market projections about flexible and printable electronics and interesting applications. The second half will deal with different printing techniques and processes and materials requirements involved in large area printed electronics.